During the first trimester, women may have concerns and anxiety about the well-being of the baby. This can create some stress and result in decreased interest for intercourse. This situation can become more pronounced as the pregnancy progresses. During this time men can help the situation by taking more interest in the pregnancy and be more reassuring and supportive. This is a time to improve the relationship and foster better communication and commitment.

The second trimester was found to be a time when sexual activity by most couples steadily declines and this, in part is due to some fear and misunderstanding. In most uncomplicated pregnancies there is no contraindication to intercourse. In low-risk pregnancies intercourse does not cause harm and regular intercourse is not restricted. In cases of incompetent cervix, preterm labor, placenta previa or other complications intercourse would need to be avoided.

In the postpartum period there are also some changes in hormones that cause vaginal dryness, low- estrogen state and related physical, psychological or emotional sitiuations. There is a decrease in female sexual desire which could be worsened if postpartum depression is present. This requires treatment. Women may feel tired frequently during this time. It is found that one third of all couples have issues with sex and intimacy during and after pregnancy which can have long-term effect. These issues need to be adequately explored and addressed.